Ebers–Moll model for an NPN transistor. mode are well modeled by an approximation to the Ebers–Moll model. Ebers and Moll created a model between the current and voltages in the transistor terminals. This model is knowned as the Ebers Moll model. The Ebers-Moll model is an ideal model for a bipolar transistor, which can be used, in the forward active mode of.

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A History of the World Semiconductor Industry.

NPN base width for low collector—base reverse bias; Bottom: In active mode, the electric field existing between base and collector caused by V CE will cause the majority of these electrons to cross the upper P-N junction into the collector to form the collector current I C. The common-base current gain is approximately the gain of current from emitter to collector in the forward-active region.

Instead, they drift through the base-collector depletion region and end up as majority carriers in the collector region. The thermal runaway process associated with secondary breakdown, once triggered, occurs almost instantly and may catastrophically damage the transistor package.

This base transport factor can also be expressed in function of the diffusion length in the base: In the more traditional BJT, also referred to as homojunction BJT, the efficiency of carrier injection from the emitter to the base is primarily determined by the doping ratio between the emitter and base, which means the base must be lightly doped to obtain high injection efficiency, making its resistance relatively high.

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The Bipolar Transistor (Ebers Moll Model)

In addition, the collector-base area is typically larger than the emitter-base area, so that even fewer electrons make it from the collector into the emitter. This eberrs transport factor can also be expressed o function of the diffusion length in the base:. For their operation, BJTs use two junctions between two semiconductor types, n-type and p-type. Both factors increase the collector or “output” current of the transistor in response to an increase in the collector—base voltage.

Holt, Reinhart, and Winston. An increase in the collector—base transitor, for example, causes a greater reverse bias across the collector—base junction, increasing od collector—base depletion region width, and decreasing the width of the base. The proportion of electrons able to cross the base and reach the collector is a measure of the BJT efficiency.


The ideal transistor model is based on the ideal p-n diode model and provides a first-order calculation of the dc parameters of a bipolar junction transistor. The base internal current evers mainly by diffusion see Fick’s law and. For this the h oe and h re parameters are neglected that is, they are set to infinity and zero, respectively.

The current gain then becomes: All possible bias modes are illustrated with Figure 5. The Base to emitter voltage and base to collector voltage in terms of currents can be derived as follows. Consider two diodes connected back to back in the configuration shown below back to back diodes in series.

However, because base charge is not a signal that is visible at the terminals, the current- and voltage-control views are generally used in circuit design and analysis.

Bipolar junction transistor

This barrier arrangement helps reduce minority carrier injection from the base when the emitter-base junction is under forward bias, and thus reduces base current and increases emitter injection efficiency. Your yransistor address will not be published. The saturation currents I E,s and I C,s are obtained by measuring the base-emitter base-collector diode saturation current while shorting the base-collector base-emitter diode.

The collector—base junction is reverse-biased, and so little electron injection occurs from the collector to the base, but electrons that diffuse through the base towards the collector are swept into the collector by the electric field in the depletion region of the collector—base junction.

General bias modes of a bipolar transistor. This ratio usually has a value close to unity; between 0. This effect transiwtor be used to amplify the input trwnsistor or current. It is common in modern ultrafast circuits, mostly RF systems. In mocel discussion below, focus is on the NPN bipolar transistor.

Radiation causes a buildup of ‘defects’ in the base region that act as recombination centers. While this boundary condition is mathematically equivalent to that of an ideal contact, there is an important difference. Principles, Techniques and Applications. In this article, current arrows are shown in the conventional direction, but labels for the movement of holes and electrons show their actual direction inside the transistor.


The heavy doping of the emitter region and light doping of the base region causes many more electrons to be injected from the emitter transisyor the base than holes to be injected from the base into the emitter.

Trznsistor high-frequency analyses the inter-electrode capacitances that are important at high frequencies must be added. The low-performance “lateral” bipolar transistors sometimes used in CMOS processes are sometimes designed symmetrically, that is, with no difference between forward and backward operation. The device thus loses all gain when in this state.

Therefore, the base-collector junction is also forward biased. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Ebers Moll Model of a Bipolar Transistor – Electronics Area

The two diodes represent the base-emitter and base-collector diodes. The BJT also makes a good amplifier, since ehers can multiply a weak input signal to about times its original strength. To allow for greater current and faster operation, most bipolar transistors used today are NPN because electron mobility is higher than hole mobility. Usually the emitter is composed of a larger bandgap material than the base. The current equations derived above is interpreted in terms of a model shown in the figure.

The three main BJT amplifier topologies are:. The saturation voltage equals: The electrical resistivity of doped silicon, like other semiconductors, has a negative temperature coefficientmeaning that it conducts more current at higher temperatures.

As shown in the diagram, the emitter current, I Eis the total transistor current, which is the sum of the other terminal currents, i. The regions of a BJT are called emittercollectorand base. Minority-carrier distribution in the quasi-neutral regions of a bipolar transistor a Forward active bias mode.

Capacitor types Ceramic resonator Crystal oscillator Inductor Parametron Relay reed relay mercury switch. For DC conditions they are specified in upper-case.