This is a reprint of the English Translation of the Nyaya Sutras of Gautama by Mm . Dr. Ganganatha Jha, the versatile Sanskrit scholar who will ever be. Where There’s Smoke There’s Fire: Gautama’s Nyāya-Sūtra. Posted on 10 December The Nyāya-Sūtra inaugurates a tradition of logical and. Nyaya: Gautama’s Nyaya-sutra, with Vatsyayana’s commentary (Indian philosophy in its sources) [Gautama (Authority on Nyayasastra)] on *FREE*.
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Hence you will not be able to establish the denial itself.
To eliminate such cases the epithet non-erratic has been used. But in the case of investigation, doubt must precede ascertainment.
The present time is indicated by what continues, the past by what has been finished and the future by what has not yet begun.
The Nyaya-Sutras Of Gautama: With The Bhasya Of Vatsyayana And The Vartika Of Uddyotakara
Nyaya Theory of Knowledge: Some say that sound is eternal because it is intangible. Opponent — There is no soul.
Hence it is concluded that senses are many. Application is a winding up, with reference to the example, of what is to be established as being so or not so. If the tree was one whole, then the contradictory qualities of yellowness and greenness could not have belonged to it simultaneously.
Some say that the word noun denotes form by which an entity is recognised. The example ” soul ” possesses a character heterogeneous to that which is implied in the reason, viz. Confutation, which is carried on lor ascertain- ing the real character of a thing of which the character gautma not known, is reasoning which reveals the character by- showing the absurdity of all contrary characters.
It is evident that presumption like inference passes from a perceived thing to an unperceived olie because they are in some way connected. This knowledge of a previously unperceived object derived through its similarity to a per- ceived object is, it has been said, nothing but a case of inference. The Veda, which is a kind of verbal testimony, is not, some say, a means of right knowledge.
Disputant — Sound is non-eternal because unlike ether it is a product. The Veda is reliable like the spell and medical science, because of the reliability of their authors.
Disputant, in order to gain the confidence of the gautana people, Bays — ” learned audience, listen, 1 do not say that fire is not hot,” etc.
Aphorism brings forth the objection that doubt is not produced even by the recognition of common or hautama properties alone. Discusses epistemology, when perception, inference and comparison is unreliable and reliable.
One may sum up the situation pretty safely by saying that we have not the vaguest idea who wrote the Nyayasutras or when he lived.
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In the case of letters, however, there is no fixed rule, e. Moreover, the denial itself cannot be established, iiyou deny all means of right knowledge. Introduction The Works, of which an English translation has been offered for the first time in the following pages, consist of a Nyaya-sutras by Gotamab Nyaya-bhasya]] by Nyayya and c Nyaya Vartika by Uddyotakara. There are five objects, viz.
Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Two miles to the east of the village there is another village named Alfalya- sthana where between a pair of trees nyaga a slab of stone identified with Ahalya in her accursed state.
And thesenses subservient to the purposes of man have been set in order by his deserts. We further say, that only artificial things are designated by the term extension.
Full text of “The Nyaya Sutras of Gotama”
Moreover, the mind cannot be the agent as it is atomic in nature. The five agutama viz. Likewise through heterogeneous or negative charac- ter. Similarly, the quality, action, etc. A substance unless it possesses magnitude, or a quality unless it possesses obviousness is not perceived.
In fact the Nynya Logic was in course of time deservedly held in very high esteem. This, we reply, is no contradiction since rumour is included in verbal testimony, and presumption, probabi- lity and non-existence are included in inference.
The two agree in conveying knowledge of an object through its sign, but the sign in one is different from the sign in the other. But it is established by inference like the lower half of the earth or the other side of the moon. Hence the non-existence destruc- tion of a jar which has a beginning is not really eternal.
There is another tradition prevalent in the town suutra Chapra that Gautama, husband of Ahalya and founder of the Nyaya philosophy, resided in a village now called Godna at the confluence of the rivers Ganges and -Sarayfi where a Sanskrit academy called Gautama Gauhama Pathasala has been established to commemorate the great sage.
Similarly, some say, the ray of the eye possesses obviousness of colour but it is not perceived during the day time on account of its being overpowered by the light of the sun. Quibble is the opposition offered to a proposi- tion by the assumption of an alternative meaning.
Seemg a cow some- where we acquire a general notion of cows U, derive knowledge of cowhood. Sonic hold that comparison is not a separate means of knowledge, for when one notices the likeness of a cow in a strange animal one really performs an act of perception.
But there is only one eye which is divided by the bridge of the nose and which performs the two functions of perception and recognition. Never- theless the principles of Nyiiya entering into the different systems of philosophy gave them each its proper compactness and cogency just as Bacon’s Inductive Method shaped the sciences and philosophies of a later age in a different country. Having recollected what lie heard he institutes a comparison, by which he arrives at the con- viction that the animal which he sees is bos gavaeus.
In order to distinguish a cow-individual from a horse-individual, we must admit a genus called cow distinguished from a genus called horse. This, we reply, is no reason, because non-per- ception consists of nyyaa of perception. Recognition of properties common to many objects is, for instance, a cause of doubt. Presents correct knowledge is necessary and sufficient to destroy gautaam. The foregoing objection is not valid because we cannot perceive what is screened from us by walls.
In fact the nature of your objection is not definite in itself, or in other words, it leads to uncertainty.